Conflicts of interest are likely to intensify if rural poverty and dependency on land increases. Many complex cultural and social issues are raised by a shift to cultivation and other new livelihood strategies for traditionally pastoralist communities, none of which currently promote beneficial interactions with wildlife conservation. This paper considers whether the problematic situations that emerge can be dealt with by improved management of interactions between the stakeholders, or whether the dilemmas faced are part of a deeper structural conflict of interests which the more optimistic win-win literature on communities and wildlife management in Africa has obscured.
Stuart Coupe formerly International Projects Manager of the Reducing Vulnerability Team at Practical Action, an international NGO active on agricultural biodiversity and Farmers' Rights issues, has a background in Southern African Studies, including doctorate study and published works since 1992. Viv Lewis, former Senior Food Production Specialist, ITDG, is currently Food Security Adviser, Plan International. Zadoc Ogutu is Senior Lecturer in the Department of Geography, Kenyatta University. Cathy Watson, formerly ITDG, is now an independent consultant. She has worked extensively on pastoralist and agro-pastoralist issues.