This book offers comprehensive, yet concise coverage of robotics. It covers analysis of robot kinematics, differential motions, robot dynamics, and trajectory planning. It then proceeds to discuss in detail such important robot subsystems as actuators, sensors, vision systems, and fuzzy logic (at an introductory level). Robotic applications are drawn from a wide variety of fields. Features: *Provides comprehensive coverage of kinematics and dynamics of robotics, plus coverage of important subsystems. *Includes microprocessor and mechatronic robotics applications, as well as an entire chapter on vision systems (image processing and image analysis). *Applications oriented with design projects, examples, and homework projects. *Introduces a running design project at the end of Chapter 2. At the end of each subsequent chapter, the reader is asked to apply the concepts learned to the running design example. The intended result is that by the end of the book the reader has designed a complete robot. The book is intended for senior or first-year graduate courses in robotics.
It is also an excellent resource for practicing engineers to aid their development and design work in robotics.
Table of Contents
Most chapter begins with an Introduction and conclude with a Summary, References and Problems. 1. Fundamentals. What is a Robot? Classification of Robots. What is Robotics? History of Robotics. Advantages and Disadvantages of Robots. Robot Components. Robot Degrees of Freedom. Robot Joints. Robot Coordinates. Robot Reference Frames. Programming Modes. Robot Characteristics. Robot Workspace. Robot Languages. Robot Applications. Other Robots and Applications. Social Issues. 2. Robot Kinematics: Position Analysis. Robots as Mechanisms. Matrix Representation. Homogeneous Transformation Matrices. Representation of Transformations. Inverse of Transformation Matrices. Forward and Inverse Kinematics of Robots. Denavit-Hartenberg Representation of Forward Kinematic Equations of Robots. The Inverse Kinematic Solution of Robots. Inverse Kinematic Programming of Robots. Degeneracy and Dexterity. The Fundamental Problem with the Denavit-Hartenberg Representation. Design Project 1: A Three-Degree-of-Freedom Robot. 3. Differential Motions and Velocities. Differential Relationships. Jacobian. Differential Motions of a Frame. Interpretation of the Differential Change. Differential Changes Between Frames. Differential Motions of a Robot and Its Hand Frame. Calculation of the Jacobian. How to Relate the Jacobian and the Differential Operator. Inverse Jacobian. Design Project. 4. Dynamic Analysis and Forces. Lagrangian Mechanics: A Short Overview. Effective Moments of Inertia. Dynamic Equations for Multiple-Degree-of-Freedom Robots. Static Force Analysis of Robots. Transformation of Forces and Moments Between Coordinate Frames. Design Project. 5. Trajectory Planning. Path vs. Trajectory. Joint-Space vs. Cartesian-Space Descriptions. Basics of Trajectory Planning. Joint-Space Trajectory Planning. Cartesian-Space Trajectories. Continuous Trajectory Recording. Design Project. 6. Actuators. Characteristics of Actuating Systems. Comparison of Actuating Systems. Hydraulic Devices. Pneumatic Devices. Electric Motors. Microprocessor Control of Electric Motors. Magnetostrictive Actuators. Shape-Memory Type Metals. Speed Reduction. Design Project 1. Design Project 2. 7. Sensors. Sensor Characteristics. Position Sensors. Velocity Sensors. Acceleration Sensors. Force and Pressure Sensors. Torque Sensors. Microswitches. Light and Infrared Sensors. Touch and Tactile Sensors. Proximity Sensors. Range-finders. Sniff Sensors. Vision Systems. Voice Recognition Devices. Voice Synthesizers. Remote Center Compliance (RCC) Device. Design Project. 8. Image Processing and Analysis with Vision Systems. Image Processing versus Image Analysis. Two- and Three-Dimensional Image Types. What is an Image. Acquisition of Images. Digital Images. Frequency Domain vs. Spatial Domain. Fourier Transform of a Signal and its Frequency Content. Frequency Content of an Image; Noise, Edges. Spatial Domain Operations: Convolution Mask. Sampling and Quantization. Sampling Theorem. Image-Processing Techniques. Histogram of Images. Thresholding. Connectivity. Noise Reduction. Edge Detection. Hough Transform. Segmentation. Segmentation by Region Growing and Region Splitting. Binary Morphology Operations. Gray Morphology Operations. Image Analysis. Object Recognition by Features. Depth Measurement with Vision Systems. Specialized Lighting. Image Data Compression. Real-Time Image Processing. Heuristics. Applications of Vision Systems. Design project. 9. Fuzzy Logic Control. Fuzzy Control: What is Needed. Crisp Values vs. Fuzzy Values. Fuzzy Sets: Degrees of Membership and Truth. Fuzzification. Fuzzy Inference Rule Base. Defuzzification. Simulation of Fuzzy Logic Controller. Applications of Fuzzy Logic in Robotics. Design Project. Appendix. Matrix Algebra and Notation: A Review. Calculation of an Angle From its Sine, Cosine, or Tangent. Problems. Index.