This text has two unifying themes: materials balances and environmental ethics. First, the book demonstrates that environmental problems need to be solved using a holistic approach instead of a fragmented, single-pollution or single-medium approach. By using the concepts of materials balances, reactions, and reactors, the authors integrate and unify the presentation of water supply, waste-water treatment, air pollution control, and solid and hazardous waste management. Second, since ethics plays an increasingly important part in the professional lives of engineers, the authors incorporate ethical decision making into the discussions and problems. In many of the problems, students are required not only to solve the technical part, but also to consider the ethical ramifications of solving the technical problems.
Table of Contents
PART I: ENVIRONMENTIAL ENGINEERING. 1. IDENTIFYING AND SOLVING ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS. The Holy Cross College Hepatitis Outbreak. The Disposal of Wastewater Sludge. The Donora Episode. Jersey City Chromium. The Discovery of Biological Wastewater Treatment. The Garbage Barge. PART II: FUNDAMENTALS. 2. ENGINEERING CALCULATIONS. Engineering Dimensions and Units. Approximations in Engineering Calculations. Information Analysis. 3. MATERIALS BALANCES AND SEPARATIONS. Materials Balances with a Single Material. Materials Balances with Multiple Materials. Materials Balances with Reactors. 4. REACTIONS. Zero-Order Reactions. First-Order Reactions. Second-Order and Noninteger-Order Reactions. Half-Life and Doubling Time. Consecutive Reactions. 5. REACTORS. Mixing Model. Reactor Models. 6. ENERGY FLOWS AND BALANCES. Units of Measure. Energy Balances and Conversion. Energy Sources and Availability. 7. ECOSYSTEMS. Energy and Materials Flows in Ecosystems. Human Influence on Ecosystems. PART III: APPLICATIONS. 8. WATER QUALITY. Measures of Water Quality. Assessing Water Quality. Water Quality Standards. 9. WATER SUPPLY AND TREATMENT. The Hydrologic Cycle and Water Availability. Water Treatment. Distribution of Water. 10. WASTEWATER TREATMENT. Wastewater Transport. Preliminary and Primary Treatment. Secondary Treatment. Tertiary Treatment. Sludge Treatment and Disposal. Selection of Treatment Strategies. 11. AIR QUALITY. Meteorology and Air Movement. Major Air Pollutants. Sources and Effects of Air Pollution. Air Quality Standards. 12. AIR QUALITY CONTROL. Treatment of Emissions. Dispersion of Air Pollutants. Control of Moving Sources. 13. SOLID WASTE. Collection of Refuse. Generation of Refuse. Reuse and Recycling of Materials from Refuse. Combustion of Refuse. Ultimate Disposal of Refuse: Sanitary Landfills. Reducing the Generation of Refuse: Source Reduction. Integrated Solid Waste Management. 14. HAZARDOUS WASTE. Defining Hazardous Waste. Hazardous Waste Management. Radioactive Waste Management. Pollution Prevention. Hazardous Waste Management and Future Generations. 15. NOISE POLLUTION. Sound. Measurement of Sound. Effect of Noise on Human Health. Noise Abatement. Noise Control. 16. ENGINEERING DECISIONS. Decisions Based on Technical Analyses. Decisions Based on Cost-Effectiveness Analyses. Decisions Based on Benefit/Cost Analyses. Decisions Based on Risk Analyses. Decisions Based on Environmental Impact Analyses. Decisions Based on Ethical Analyses. Continuity in Engineering Decisions.