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Identification of Human Annexin A6 as a Novel Cellular Interactant of Influenza a Virus M2 Protein and Regulator of Virus Budding and Release



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Identification of Human Annexin A6 as a Novel Cellular Interactant of Influenza a Virus M2 Protein and Regulator of Virus Budding and Release by Huailiang Ma
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This dissertation, "Identification of Human Annexin A6 as a Novel Cellular Interactant of Influenza A Virus M2 Protein and Regulator of Virus Budding and Release" by Huailiang, Ma, 马怀良, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Influenza viruses exploit sophisticated host cell machinery to replicate, causing both seasonal epidemics and unpredictable pandemics. Studying the host cellular factors interacting with conserved domains of viral proteins will help us to identify key host proteins for the virus infection. This will not only strengthen our understanding of the precise mechanisms of the virus life cycle, but also pave new avenues for anti-viral development. The cytoplasmic tail of M2 ion channel (M2/CT) is one of these highly conserved domains. It is fully accessible to the host cell machinery after fusion of the virus envelope with the endosomal membrane and during the trafficking, assembly, and budding processes. I hypothesized that recruitment of host cellular factors by M2/CT may regulate the M2-dependent stages of the virus life cycle. Through a large scale yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screen with the M2/CT used as bait, the human annexin A6 was identified as a novel host cell interactant and this interaction was further confirmed by both GST pull-down assay on purified proteins and co-immunoprecipitation assay on virus infected cells. A functional characterization of this novel interaction demonstrated that depletion of annexin A6 could enhance the virus production, while its overexpression could reduce the virus propagation, which indicates that annexin A6 is a negative regulator of the virus infection. However, I found that the virus infection could not induce any changes of annexin A6 expression. Therefore, the annexin A6-mediated regulation may depend on the subcellular localization where the interaction with M2/CT occurs. To decipher which step of the virus replication is regulated, we dissected the virus life cycle and found that modulation of annexin A6 expression had no effect on the early stages of the virus life cycle or on viral RNA replication but impaired the release of progeny virus, as suggested by delayed or defective budding events observed at the plasma membrane of virus-infected and annexin A6-overexpressing cells during a transmission electron microscopy study. To further decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms, the contribution of annexin A6-mediated plasma membrane lipid rafts reorganization through cholesterol homeostasis modulation and cortical actin cytoskeleton remodeling was also investigated. In conclusion, here I have identified the human annexin A6 as a novel host cell interactant of M2/CT that negatively modulate the influenza virus infection by impairing the virus budding and release. This work further supports the idea that M2 is a multifunctional protein and is also consistent with the discovery by Rossman et al. that M2/CT mediates the virus budding process (Rossman et al., 2010). This study further emphasizes the importance of host cell interactants of M2/CT in this process. Regarding the biology of annexins, this study also adds a new member of this protein family in the list of regulators of influenza virus infection. DOI: 10.5353/th_b4852174 Subjects: Influenza A virusViral proteins
Release date NZ
January 26th, 2017
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Country of Publication
United States
colour illustrations
Open Dissertation Press
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