This is the new edition of the highly successful practical guide for clinicians developing tools to measure subjective states, attitudes or non-tangible outcomes in their patients. It is widely used by people from many disciplines, who have only a limited knowledge of statistics. This thoroughly updated edition of Health Measurement Scales, Third Edition gives more details on cognitive requirements in answering questions, and how this influences scale development. There is now an expanded discussion of generalizability theory, a completely revised chapter on Item Response Theory and many revisions are included, based on the latest research findings. These features combine to provide the most up-to-date guide to measuring scale development available. It synthesizes the theory of scale construction with practical advice, culled from the literature and the authors' experience, about how to develop and validate measurement scales to be used in the health sciences. The theory goes into issues of reliability, generalizability theory, validity, the measurement of change, the cognitive requirements of answering questions, and item response theory.
Practical issues cover devising the items, biases that may affect the responses, pre-testing and weeding out poorly performing items, combining items into scales, setting cut points, and the practical issues of using scales in various ways, such as face-to-face interviews; mailed or telephone-administered surveys; and over the internet. One chapter also discusses some of the ethical issues that scale developers and users should be aware of. Appendices lead the reader to other readings; sources of already developed scales and items; and a very brief introduction to exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.
Table of Contents
1. Introduction; 2. Basic concepts; 3. Devising the items; 4. Scaling responses; 5. Selecting the items; 6. Biases in responding; 7. From items to scales; 8. Reliability; 9. Generalizability theory; 10. Validity; 11. Measuring change; 12. Item response theory; 13. Methods of administration; 14. Ethical considerations; Appendices; Author index; Subject index
David Streiner was trained in Clinical Psychology, and received his Ph.D. in 1968 from Syracuse University. He is the Assistant Vice President for Research, Director, Kunin-Lunenfeld Applied Research Unit at the Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care. His primary research interests, broadly speaking, include the psychological effects of medical disorders and treatments, and how to apply psychological ways of thinking to other areas. He is involved in a series of studies looking at the psychosocial effects of environmental hazards, and the relationship between stress and the "sick building syndrome." His other studies investigate the cognitive effects of anti-malarial medications, and factors which predispose travellers to do risky things. Geoffrey Norman's research falls in three broad domains: 1) research on clinical reasoning, particularly in the relative contribution of rapid processing based on prior experience (so-called pattern recognition) and analytical rules; 2) assessment of students (reliability and validity of various approaches from multiple choice tests to undetected standardized patients; 3) methodology of measurement, particularly as it pertains to the measurement of change. He is