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General Chemistry

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General Chemistry by Jean B. Umland
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Description

For students to learn to think scientifically, they need something to think about. Authors Jean B. Umland and Jon M. Bellama accomplish this by integrating descriptive chemistry and theory throughout the book. From the very first chapter, the authors familiarize students with chemical reactions - which Umland and Bellama believe are the heart of chemistry. But the authors go beyond describing what happens during a reaction to explaining WHY chemical reactions occur. This allows the first lectures to include the interesting demonstrations that capture student interest and keep them captivated throughout the course. It's this approach that helps involve students in a fascinating discovery process that lets them experience the "Aha!" feeling, and makes them eager to learn more about the chemical processes taking place around them.

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION Observations and Conclusions / Physical and Chemical Changes / Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures / Related Topic: Chemistry from the Fifth Century B.C. to the Sixteenth Century A.D. / The Scientific Method / Atoms / Use of Models in Science / Symbols / The Periodic Table / Molecules and Ions / Naming Inorganic Compounds / Chemical Equations / Predicting Reactions / Related Topic: The Oldest Reaction / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Bill Frist, Science and Public Policy 2. MEASUREMENT SI Units / Related Topic: Risk / Converting Units / Uncertainty in Measurement / Significant Figures in Calculations / Measuring Volume / Measuring Mass / Extensive and Intensive Properties / Density / Related Topic: The Discovery of the Noble Gases / Measuring Temperature / Measuring Time / Atomic Masses / Formula Masses / Amount of Substance / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Cecilia Olavarrieta-Kuhn, The Unknown Adventure 3. STOICHIOMETRY Law of Conservation of Matter / Related Topic: Waste Disposal and Resources / More About Balancing Equations / Equations on a Macroscopic Scale / Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions / Limiting Reactants / Theoretical, Actual, and Percent Yields / Related Topic: Green Chemistry / Quantitative Analysis / Empirical Formulas from Percent Composition / Molecular and Structural Formulas / Percent Composition from Formulas / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: James A. Cusumano, Green Chemist, Rock Star, and Entrepreneur 4. REACTIONS IN SOLUTION Some Important Definitions / Electrolytes / Reactions Between Ions in Solution / Ionic Equations / Single-Replacement Reactions / Some Uses of Reactions in Solution / Related Topic: Materials Science / Concentration Expressed as Percent / Molarity / Related Topic: Nature's Solutions / Stoichiometry of Reactions in Solution / Titration / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / GUEST ESSAY: ELVIA NIEBLA-A SCIENTIST SERVES THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT 5. GASES Pressure / Relation Between Pressure and a Volume of a Gas / Relation Between Volume and Temperature of a Gas / Standard Temperature and Pressure / Gay-Lussac's Law of Combining Volumes and Avogadro's Law / The Ideal Gas Equation / Using the Ideal Gas Equation to Solve Problems / Related Topic: The Importance of Gas Densities / Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures / The Kinetic-Molecular Theory/ Effusion and Diffusion Rates of Gases / Real Gases / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Bernard A. Harris, Jr., M.D., Chemistry: On Earth and Beyond 6. CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS: THERMOCHEMISTRY Systems, Surroundings, and Universe / Why Changes Take Place / Temperature, Thermal Energy, and Heat / Law of Conservation of Energy / Energy Units / Heat Capacity and Specific Heat / Measurement of Thermal Energy Gained or Lost During Changes / Enthalpy / Hess's Law / Related Topic: The Energy Problem / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Elvia Niebla, A Scientest Serves the Global Environment 7. ATOMIC STRUCTURE Discovery of the Electron / Determination of the Charge and Mass of the Electron / The Nuclear Atom / Discovery of the Proton and the Neutron / Traveling Waves / Electromagnetic Radiation / The Bohr Model of the Hydrogen Atom / Related Topic: Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy / The Wave Theory of the Electron / The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle / The Quantum Mechanical or Wave Mechanical Model of the Atom: The Schrodinger Equation / Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle / Pictures of Orbitals / Related Topic: The Dirac Equation: A Relativistic Model of the Atom / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Sallie Baliunas, Chemistry and the Stars 8. ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND THE PERIODIC TABLE Electron Configurations / The Periodic Table and Electron Configurations / Using the Periodic Table to Write Electron Configurations / Atomic and Ionic Radii / Ionization Energy / Electron Affinity / Related Topic: Mendeleev and the Periodic Table / Chemical Properties and the Periodic Table / Ways of Numbering Groups in the Periodic Table / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Application / What's Wrong / Judy Williams-Howze, Chemistry and Microscopic Marine Life 9. CHEMICAL BONDS Valence Electrons / Ionic Bonds / Related Topic: Salt / Showing Molecular Structure with Lewis Structures / Nonpolar and Polar Covalent Bonds / Electronegativity / More About Writing Lewis Structures / Bond Length, Bond Energy, and Bond Order / Formal Charges / Resonance Structures / Exceptions to the Octet Rule / Polymers / More About Bond Energies / Related Topic: Methane / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Sheri Zidenberg-Cherr, A Nutritionist Uses Chemistry 10. MOLECULAR SHAPE AND THEORY OF CHEMICAL BONDING Shapes of Molecules and Polyatomic Ions: The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Model / Polar and Nonpolar Molecules / Introduction to Bonding Theory / The Valence Bond Method / Related Topic: The Chemistry of a Vision / Solution of the Schrodinger Equation for the Hydrogen Molecule / The Molecular Orbital Method / Related Topic: Nitric Oxide: A Simple Biochemical / Delocalized Electrons / Band Theory of Bonding in Solids / Molecular Spectra / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: L. Gene Spears, Jr., A Lawyer Uses Chemistry 11. OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS Oxidation Numbers / Oxidation Numbers and the Periodic Table / Oxidation Numbers and Nomenclature / Identifying Oxidation-Reduction Reactions / Writing Equations for Oxidation-Reduction Reactions / Disproportionation Reactions / Oxidation-Reduction Titrations / Related Topic: The Breathalyzer / Oxidation by Oxygen / Related Topic: The Other Face of Fire / Metallurgy / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Carolyn Rebbert, A Geochemist Puts the Pressure on Minerals 12. LIQUIDS, SOLIDS, AND CHANGES IN STATE A Kinetic-Molecular View of Liquids and Solids / Intermolecular Attractions / Properties of Liquids / Vapor Pressure and Boiling Point / Melting points and Freezing Points / Heating and Cooling Curves / Phase Diagrams / Related Topic: Liquid Crystals / Types of Crystals / Arrangement of Units in Crystals / Crystal Structure from X-Ray Diffraction Patterns / Related Topic: Something to Bragg About / Calculation of Atomic and Ionic Radii and Avogadro's Number / Defects in Crystals / Related Topic: Scanning Probe Microscopes / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Raymond Jeanloz, Chemistry and Planetary Interiors 13. SOLUTIONS REVISITED A Kinetic-Molecular View of the Solution Process / Solubilities of Solids / Effect of Temperature on Solubility / Related Topic: Thermal Pollution / Effect of Pressure on Solubility / Two More Concentration Units: Molarity and Mole Fraction / Raoult's Law / Colligative Properties / Colloids / Related Topic: Separation of Mixtures / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Jim Williamson, Chemical Needs of a Solar Engineer 14. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Introduction to Chemical Equilibria / Equilibrium Constants and Equilibrium Constant Expressions / Determination of Values of Equilibrium Constants / Calculations Involving Equilibrium Constants / Using Le Chatelier's Principle to Predict Shifts in Chemical Equilibria / Some Industrially Important Chemical Equilibria / Related Topic: The Oxygen-Hemoglobin Equilibrium / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Donna R. Rees, Forensic Science and Chemistry 15. ACIDS AND BASES The Bronsted-Lowry Definitions / The Ion Product for Water, KW / The pH and Other "p" Scales / Concentrations of Hydrogen Ions in Aqueous Solutions of Acids / Concentrations of Hydroxide Ions in Aqueous Solutions of Bases / Hydrolysis / The Common Ion Effect / Buffer Solutions / How Indicators Work / Titration Revisited / Polyprotic Acids / Related Topic: Acids and Bases in the Human Body / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Robert Friedman, A Chemist Escapes from the Lab 16. MORE ABOUT EQUILIBRIA Predicting the Positions of Acid-Base Equilibria / Acidity, Basicity, and the Periodic Table / Lewis Acids and Bases / Related Topic: Acid Rain / Equilibria Between Complexes and Their Parts / The Solubility Product Constant and Solubility / Factors Influencing the Solubility of Salts and Hydroxides / Calculations Involving Ksp / Some Practical Applications of Solubility Equilibria / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Mark Murcko, A Computational Chemist in the Pharmaceutical Industry 17. CHEMICAL THERMODYNAMICS REVISITED: A CLOSER LOOK AT ENTHALPY, ENTROPY, AND EQUILIBRIUM The Laws of Thermodynamics / Entropy / Free Energy / Temperature and Direction of Spontaneous Change / Calculation of DG from DH and DS / Calculation of DG from DGf / Related Topic: Enthalpy, Entropy, and Acidity / Estimation of DG at Different Temperatures / Estimation of Temperature at Which Direction of Spontaneous Change Reverses / Calculation of DG for Nonstandard Conditions / Standard Free Energies and Equilibrium Constants / Free Energy and Useful Work / Related Topic: Order from Disorder / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Jeanette K. Wiegand, The Pharmacist Who Hated Arithmetic 18. CHEMICAL KINETICS: A CLOSER LOOK AT REACTION RATES Rates of Reactions / Rate and Concentration / Finding Rate Laws / First-Order Reactions / Rate and Identity of Reactants / Rate and Solvent / Heterogeneous Reactions / Catalysts / Rate and Temperature / Theories of reaction Rates / Reaction Mechanisms / How Catalysts Work / Related Topic: The Kinetics of Drinking / The Steady-State Approximation / Answers to Two Common Questions / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Mike Wong, Chemistry and the Search for Blood Substitutes 19. ELECTROCHEMISTRY Voltaic Cells / Standard Cell Potentials / Effect of Concentration on Cell Potential / Free Energy and Cell Potential / Batteries / Related Topic: Fuel Cells / Corrosion / Electrolytic Cells / Stochiometry of Electrochemical Reactions / Practical Applications of Electrolysis / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Lynda A. Zycherman, An Art Conservator Looks at Chemistry 20. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY Radioactive Decay Processes / Induced Nuclear Reactions / Related Topic: Seaborg and the Transuranium Elements / Rates of Nuclear Reactions / Predicting Which Type of Radioactive Decay Will Take Place / Radioactive Decay Series / Energy Changes Accompanying Nuclear Reactions / Fission / Fusion / Biological Effects of Radiation / Uses of Radionuclides / Synthesis of Elements / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Frank A. Gomez, Bioorganometallic Chemistry: Working at a Scientific Interface 21. A CLOSER LOOK AT INORGANIC CHEMISTRY: NONMETALS AND SEMIMENTALS AND THEIR COMPOUNDS Hydrogen / Related Topic: Hydrogen as a Fuel / Water / Oxygen / Related Topic: Earth's Atmosphere / Sulfur / Nitrogen / Phosphorus / Carbon / Silicon / Chlorine / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: William R. Jenkins, A Brewer Uses Chemistry 22. A CLOSER LOOK AT ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Occurrence of Organic Compounds / Hydrides of Carbon / Stereoisomers / Why There Are So Many Carbon Compounds / Alkanes / Nomenclature of Organic Compounds / Functional Groups / Mechanism / Related Topic: Petroleum / Synthesis / More About Polymerization: Physical and Chemical Properties of Polymers / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Todd A. Blumenkopf, An Organic Chemist in the Pharmaceutical Industry 23. BIOCHEMISTRY Proteins / Related Topic: Prions / Related Topic: Combinatorial Chemistry / Polysaccharides / Related Topic: Glycoproteins / Nucleic Acids / Adenosine Triphosphate / Lipids / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / What's Wrong / Guest Essay: Milt Mathis, A Materials Scientist Uses Chemistry 24. A CLOSER LOOK AT INORGANIC CHEMISTRY: TRANSITION METALS AND COMPLEXES Transition Metals / Observations of Complexes and Coordination Compounds / Stereoisomerism in Complexes / Polydentate Ligands and Chelate Complexes / Constitutional Isomerism in Complexes / Nomenclature of Complexes / The d Orbitals / Bonding in Complexes / Stability and Lability of Complexes / Uses of Transition-Metal Complexes / Alloys / Related Topic: Superconductors / Summary / Additional Practice Problems / Stop & Test Yourself / Putting Things Together / Applications / APPENDIX A: NOMENCLATURE / APPENDIX B: MATHEMATICS NEEDED FOR GENERAL CHEMISTRY / APPENDIX C: PROPERTIES OF WATER / APPENDIX D: THERMODYNAMICS DATA FOR SELECTED SUBSTANCES AT 298 K / APPENDIX E: TOP 50 CHEMICALS FOR 1995 / APPENDIX F: BALANCING EQUATIONS FOR OXIDATION-REDUCTION REACTIONS BY THE CHANGE-IN-OXIDATION-NUMBER METHOD / APPENDIX G: CALCULATION OF Ksp / APPENDIX H: ANSWERS TO TEXT PROBLEMS / INDEX
Release date NZ
January 13th, 1999
Country of Publication
United States
Edition
3rd Revised edition
Illustrations
colour & b&w illustrations
Imprint
Brooks/Cole
Pages
1176
Dimensions
218x262x43
ISBN-13
9780534363987
Product ID
1819513

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