This report examines the delivery of energy services in developing countries and how the United States can help to improve these energy services while minimizing environmental impacts. OTA examines the technologies and policies that will enable more efficient use of energy and the most promising new sources of energy supply. This assessment was requested by the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs; the House Committee on Energy and Commerce and its Subcommittee on Energy and Power; the Subcommittees on Human Rights and International Organizations and on Africa of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs; the Subcommittee on International Development, Finance, Trade, and Monetary Policy of the House Banking Committee; and individual members of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, the House Select Committee on Hunger, and the Congressional Competitiveness Caucus. Such extensive congressional interest is certainly warranted. American economic, political, and environmental self-interest lies in developing healthy relationships with these present and potential trading partners and allies. Furthermore, the developing world will require our close attention for decades to come. Based on present trends, 90 percent of the expected world population growth over the next 30 years will occur in the countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America, bringing their population to almost 7 billion. Energy will play an indispensable role in raising the economic status of these people.