Group interviews are among the most common methods of research in the social sciences. Focus Groups: Theory and Practice, Second Edition provides a systematic treatment of the design, conduct, and interpretation of focus group discussions within the context of social science research and theory. The book examines every facet of focus group research, from selection and recruitment of group participants, to the selection of a moderator, to conduct of the interviews, through the analysis of focus group data. Also included are discussions on designing the interview guide, the importance and influence of group composition, the art of conducting the focus group, and the characteristics of effective moderators. The book is intended as a useful guide for research practitioners and as a supplementary text for research courses in psychology, sociology, political science, organization studies, marketing, public health, communications, education and social work.Key Features: - coverage of the use of new technologies in focus group research new focus on global research instructional aids such as a chapter summary, review questions and practical skill-building exercises in each chapter - a new chapter that provides a historical perspective on the development of focus groups including their roots in early group therapy research new, updated examples of the uses of focus groups - a discussion of the use of information technology for conducing groups on-line and by video-conference new methods for the analysis of focus group data
Table of Contents
Preface to First Edition Preface to Second Edition 1. Introduction: Focus Group History, History, Theory and Practice Border Crossing: The Behavioral Science Origins of Focus Groups Focus Group Theory Purpose of the Book Plan of the Book Conclusion Review Questions 2. Group Dynamics and Focus Group Research Influences of Intrapersonal Factors and Individual Differences Interpersonal Influences Environmental Influences Conclusion Review Questions 3. Focus Groups and the Research Toolbox Focus Group Basics: Structure, Process, and Data Uses of Focus Groups: Applications, Advantages, and Limitations Steps in the Design and Use of Focus Groups Conclusion Review Questions 4. Recruiting Focus Group Participant and Designing the Interview Guide Establishing the Research Agenda Recruiting Participants Developing the Interview Guide Issues and Trends for the Future Coclusion Review Questions 5. The Focus Group Moderator Leadership and Group Dynamics Interviewing Styles and Tactics Moderator Selection Moderator Preparation Moderator Bias in Focus Group Interviews Conclusion Review Questions 6. Conducting the Focus Group The Physical Arrangement of the Group Interviewing Style Discussion Aids Intimacy Observers and Rcordings Beginning the Interview Ensuring Participation Time Management Probing Problems Special Issues Conclusion Review Questions 7. Analyzing Focus Group Data How Much Analysis? Transcribing the Interview Qualitative Analytic Approaches Quantitative Analysis Computer-Assisted Content Analysis Conclusion Review Questions 8. Focus Group in Practice Bush, Kerry, and Focus Groups Television Ads the Public Will Never See Impulsive Consumers, Shoplifters, and Focus Groups A Representative Focus Group Report: Buying a New Car New Car Purchasing Experiences: A Sample Report Conclusion Review Questions 9. Other Group Methods The Nominal Group Technique The Delphi Technique Brainstorming and Synectics Leaderless Discussion Groups Conclusion Review Questions 10. Conclusion References Index About the Authors
Prem Shamdasani, Ph.D. is Associate Professor of Marketing; Associate Dean, Executive Education; Academic Director, Asia-Pacific Executive (APEX) MBA Program; Co-Director, Stanford-NUS Executive Program in International Management Program and Director, Advanced Management Program at the NUS Business School, National University of Singapore. He holds a BBA degree with first class honors from the National University of Singapore, and received his PhD in Marketing from the University of Southern California, Los Angeles. His research and teaching interests include Brand Management, New Product Marketing, Retail Strategy, Relationship Marketing, and Cross-Cultural Consumer Behavior. He has taught in the Singapore and internationally, and has received numerous commendations and awards for teaching excellence. Aside from teaching graduate and executive MBA courses, Dr Shamdasani is very active in executive development and training and has worked with more than 80 companies globally such as Caterpillar, J&J, L'Oreal, McDonalds, Nokia, Sony, Samsung, IBM, Microsoft, 3M, DuPont, Asahi Glass, Philips, Siemens, Alcatel-Lucent, Singapore Airlines, UPS, AP Moeller Maersk, Roche, Bayer Healthcare, GSK, Deutsche Bank, HSBC, Barclays, Ernst & Young, KPMG, Deloitte, Danone, Nestle, Suntory, Volvo, Ikea, Carrefour, Royal Ahold, NTUC Incheon Int'l Airport, UPS, Wipro, Singapore Tourism Board, UNICEF, USDA, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Singapore) and Commonwealth Secretariat (UK). He is also actively involved in focus group research for consumer products companies and social marketing programs. His research publications have appeared in the leading regional and international journals and include the Journal of Consumer Research, European Journal of Marketing, Journal of Advertising Research, Asian Journal of Marketing, Asia Pacific Journal of Management and the Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. Dennis Rook is a Professor of Clinical Marketing at the Marshall School of Business. He received his PhD in marketing in 1983 from Northwestern University's Kellogg Graduate School of Management, where he concentrated in consumer behavior theory and qualitative research methods. Following this, he served on the marketing faculty of the University of Southern California in Los Angeles. Dr. Rook left the academic environment in 1987 to join the Strategic Planning Department of DDB Needham Worldwide in Chicago where he was a research supervisor. Following this he was appointed Director of Qualitative Research Services at Conway/Milliken & Associates, a Chicago research and consulting company. Dr. Rook rejoined the USC marketing faculty in 1991. Professor Rook's published research has investigated consumer impulse buying, "solo" consumption behavior, and consumers' buying rituals and fantasies. These and other studies have appeared in the Journal of Consumer Research, Advances in Consumer Research, Symbolic Consumer Behavior, and Research in Consumer Behavior. He has served as Treasurer of the Association for Consumer Research, for which he is also a member of the Advisory Council. In 1985, his dissertation research was awarded by the Association for Consumer Research, and in 1988, he was appointed to the Editorial Board of the Journal of Consumer Research. Dr. Rook has served as a research and marketing consultant for companies in the consumer packaged goods, financial services, communications and entertainment industries.