This study provides an overview for the epidemiological background of congenital hypothyroidism in the UAE. It may be concluded that the clinical picture of congenital hypothyroidism has changed dramatically since newborn screening was established in the UAE. A major factor that helped to formulate population-based registers and linked- databases which provide very useful information for evaluating screening programmes, and extending current knowledge of the epidemiology of congenital hypothyroidism. This is the first epidemiological study of CH in the UAE in which data from population- based registries were linked to the epidemiologic patterns and associated factors. The study delineates the significantly increased incidence of congenital hypothyroidism compared to the universal incidence and the clear correlation of this incidence with certain epidemiological factors. Some of these are local which are specific and highlights a peculiar epidemiological pattern of congenital hypothyroidism in the Gulf/Middle East region.