The Ninth Edition of this popular text from renowned educational psychologist Robert Slavin translates theory into practices that teachers can use in their classrooms with a further inquiry into the concept of intentionality and a thorough integration of standards. This edition highlights current issues and emerging trends in the field of educational psychology. This edition continues to have in-depth, practical coverage with a focus on the intentional teacher by presenting up-to-the-minute research that a reflective, intentional teacher can apply. An "intentional teacher," according to Slavin, is one who constantly reflects on his or her practice and makes instructional decisions based on a clear conception of how these practices affect students. To help readers become "intentional teachers," the author offers a set of questions to guide them and models best practices through classroom examples. Firmly rooted in research, up-to-date theory, and classroom-tested applications, Educational Psychology prepares teachers as no other text does.It teaches them to think about how students develop and learn, to make decisions before and during instruction, and to consider what constitutes evidence that their students are learning and succeeding.
Slavin's Ed Psych takes a serious look at pertinent research and focuses on what works and how a reflective, intentional teacher can apply it in the classroom. Reflective questions, vignettes, self-checks and other pedagogy challenge students to think about and make decisions that drive successful instruction. The new edition builds on these established features and adds an emphasis on media effects on Learning, NCLB and the Achievement Gap, Neuroscience, and more interactive and engaged learning opportunities for students. This edition includes a new focus on reflection, new cases, sections on brain research, programs for language minority students, technology, No Child Left Behind, and after school and summer school programs. It contains new critiques of assessment and accountability strategies and a substantially updated treatment of programming for students with special needs.
Table of Contents
Each chapter concludes with "Chapter Summary," "Key Terms," and "Self-Assessment: Preparing for Licensure." 1. Educational Psychology: A Foundation for Teaching. What Makes a Good Teacher? Knowing the Subject Matters (but So Does Teaching Skill) Mastering the Teaching Skills Can Good Teaching Be Taught? The Intentional Teacher Personal Reflection: Adapting What Is the Role of Research in Educational Psychology? The Goal of Research in Educational Psychology The Value of Research in Educational Psychology to the Teacher Teaching as Decision Making Theory into Practice: Teaching as Decision Making Research + Common Sense = Effective Teaching Research on Effective Programs Impact of Research on Educational Practice Theory into Practice: How to Be an Intelligent Consumer of Educational Psychology Research What Research Methods Are Used in Educational Psychology? Experiments Correlational Studies Descriptive Research Personal Reflection: Using Research to Inform Teaching Action Research How Can I Become an Intentional Teacher? Teacher Certification Beyond Certification The Intentional Teacher: Choosing a New Curriculum 2. Theories of Development. What Are Some Views of Human Development? Aspects of Development Issues of Development How Did Piaget View Cognitive Development? How Development Occurs Piaget's Stages of Development Personal Reflection: Egocentrism in Action How Is Piaget's Work Viewed Today? Criticisms and Revisions of Piaget's Theory Theory into Practice: Educational Implications of Piaget's Theory Neo-Piagetian and Information-Processing Views of Development How Did Vygotsky View Cognitive Development? How Development Occurs Applications of Vygotskian Theory in Teaching Theory into Practice: Classroom Applications of Vygotsky's Theory How Did Erikson View Personal and Social Development? Stages of Psychosocial Development Implications and Criticisms of Erikson's Theory What Are Some Theories of Moral Development? Piaget's Theory of Moral Development Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning Theory into Practice: Fostering Moral Development in the Classroom Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory Personal Reflection: Developing Character Teaching Dilemma: Using Moral Reasoning The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Human Development to Improve Teaching and Learning 3. Development during Childhood and Adolescence. How Do Children Develop During the Preschool Years? Physical Development in Early Childhood Language Acquisition Personal Reflection: Understanding Development Teaching Dilemma: Adapting Instruction Theory into Practice: Promoting Language Development in Young Children Socioemotional Development What Kinds of Early Childhood Education Programs Exist? Day-Care Programs Preschools Compensatory Preschool Programs Early Intervention Kindergarten Programs Developmentally Appropriate Practice How Do Children Develop During the Elementary Years? Physical Development during Middle Childhood Cognitive Abilities Socioemotional Development in Middle Childhood Theory into Practice: Promoting the Development of Self-Esteem Theory into Practice: Helping Children Develop Social Skills How Do Children Develop During the Middle School and High School Years? Physical Development during Adolescence Cognitive Development Characteristics of Hypothetical-Deductive Reasoning Theory Into Practice: Promoting Formal Operational Thought Socioemotional Development in Adolescence Identity Development Personal Reflection: Coping with Change James Marcia's Four Identity Statuses Self-Concept and Self-Esteem Social Relationships Emotional Development Problems of Adolescence Theory into Practice: Providing Developmental Assets for Adolescents The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Early Childhood, Middle Childhood, and Adolescent Students to Promote Teaching and Learning 4. Student Diversity. What Is the Impact of Culture on Teaching and Learning? How Does Socioeconomic Status Affect Student Achievement? The Role of Child-Rearing Practices The Link between Income and Summer Learning The Role of Schools As Middle-Class Institutions School and Community Factors School, Family, and Community Partnerships Theory Into Practice: Parent Involvement Is the Low Achievement of Children from Low-Income Groups Inevitable? Implications for Teachers How Do Ethnicity and Race Affect Students' School Experiences? Racial and Ethnic Composition of the United States Academic Achievement of Minority-Group Students Why Have Minority-Group Students Lagged in Achievement? Teaching Dilemma: Meeting Resistance Effects of School Desegregation Personal Reflection: Being Sensitive to Race Theory into Practice: Teaching in a Culturally Diverse School How Do Language Differences and Bilingual Programs Affect Student Achievement? Bilingual Education Theory into Practice: Teaching English Language Learners What Is Multicultural Education? Dimensions of Multicultural Education How Do Gender and Gender Bias Affect Students' School Experiences? Do Males and Females Think and Learn Differently? Sex-Role Stereotyping and Gender Bias Theory into Practice: Avoiding Gender Bias in Teaching How Do Students Differ in Intelligence and Learning Styles? Definitions of Intelligence Theory into Practice: Multiple Intelligences Origins of Intelligence Theories of Learning Styles Aptitude-Treatment Interactions Personal Reflection: Understanding Diverse Thinkers The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Student Diversity to Improve Teaching and Learning 5. Behavioral and Social Theories of Learning. What Is Learning? What Behavioral Learning Theories Have Evolved? Pavlov: Classical Conditioning Thorndike: The Law of Effect Skinner: Operant Conditioning What Are Some Principles of Behavioral Learning? The Role of Consequences Reinforcers Theory into Practice: Classroom Uses of Reinforcement Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reinforcers Theory into Practice: Practical Reinforcers Punishers Immediacy of Consequences Personal Reflection: Modifying Behavior Shaping Extinction Schedules of Reinforcement Teaching Dilemma: Dealing with Behavior Problems Maintenance The Role of Antecedents How Has Social Learning Theory Contributed to Our Understanding of Human Learning? Bandura: Modeling and Observational Learning Theory into Practice: Observational Learning Meichenbaum's Model of Self-Regulated Learning Personal Reflection: Using Different Styles Strengths and Limitations of Behavioral Learning Theories The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Behavioral and Social Theories of Learning to Improve Teaching and Learning 6. Cognitive Theories of Learning. What Is an Information-Processing Model? Sensory Register Short-Term or Working Memory Long-Term Memory Factors That Enhance Long-Term Memory Other Information-Processing Models Research on the Brain What Causes People to Remember or Forget? Forgetting and Remembering Theory into Practice: Reducing Retroactive Inhibition Practice How Can Memory Strategies Be Taught? Verbal Learning Paired-Associate Learning Theory Into Practice: Keyword Mnemonics Serial and Free-Recall Learning What Makes Information Meaningful? Rote versus Meaningful Learning Schema Theory Teaching Dilemma: Differing Approaches How Do Metacognitive Skills Help Students Learn? What Study Strategies Help Students Learn? Note-Taking Underlining Summarizing Outlining and Mapping Outlining and Mapping The PQ4R Method Personal Reflection: Defining "Effective" Theory into Practice: Teaching the PQ4R Method How Do Cognitive Teaching Strategies Help Students Learn? Making Learning Relevant and Activating Prior Knowledge Organizing Information The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Cognitive Theories of Learning to Improve Teaching and Learning 7. The Effective Lesson. Personal Reflection: Balancing Instruction What Is Direct Instruction? How Is a Direct Instruction Lesson Taught? State Learning Objectives Theory into Practice: Planning a Lesson Orient Students to the Lesson Theory into Practice: Communicating Objectives to Students Review Prerequisites Present New Material Conduct Learning Probes Provide Independent Practice Assess Performance and Provide Feedback Provide Distributed Practice and Review Teaching Dilemma: Designing Lessons What Does Research on Direct Instruction Methods Suggest? Advantages and Limitations of Direct Instruction How Do Students Learn and Transfer Concepts? Concept Learning and Teaching Teaching for Transfer of Learning How Are Discussions Used in Instruction? Subjective and Controversial Topics Difficult and Novel Concepts Affective Objectives Whole-Class Discussions Small-Group Discussions The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Direct Instruction to Improve Teaching and Learning 8. Student-Center and Constructivist Approaches to Instruction. What Is the Constructivist View of Learning? Historical Roots of Constructivism Top-Down Processing Cooperative Learning Discovery Learning Self-Regulated Learning Teaching Dilemma: Developing Self-Regulating Techniques Scaffolding APA's Learner-Centered Psychological Principles Constructivist Methods in the Content Areas Theory into Practice: Introducing Reciprocal Teaching Research on Constructivist Methods How Is Cooperative Learning Used in Instruction? Cooperative Learning Methods Theory into Practice: Student Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD) Research on Cooperative Learning Personal Reflection: Working Together How Are Problem-Solving and Thinking Skills Taught? The Problem-Solving Process Obstacles to Problem Solving Teaching Creative Problem Solving Teaching Thinking Skills Critical Thinking The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Student-Centered and Constructivist Approaches to Improve Teaching and Learning 9. Accommodating Instruction to Meet Individual Needs. What Are Elements of Effective Instruction Beyond a Good Lesson? Carroll's Model of School Learning and QAIT How Are Students Grouped to Accommodate Achievement Differences? Between-Class Ability Grouping Untracking Regrouping for Reading and Mathematics Nongraded (Cross-Age Grouping) Elementary Schools Within-Class Ability Grouping What Is Mastery Learning? Forms of Mastery Learning Theory into Practice: Applying the Principles of Mastery Learning Research on Mastery Learning What Are Some Ways of Individualizing Instruction? Peer Tutoring Adult Tutoring Theory into Practice: Effectively Using Tutoring Methods to Meet Individual Needs How Is Technology Used in Education? Technology for Instruction Technology for Learning Personal Reflection: Computers in Education Technology for Administration Research on Computer-Based Instruction Cutting Edge Educational Technologies Teaching Dilemma: Should Computers Be in Labs or Classrooms? What Educational Programs Exist for Students Placed at Risk? Compensatory Education Programs No Child Left Behind Early Intervention Programs After School and Summer Programs The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Accommodating Instruction to Meet Individual Needs 10. Motivating Students to Learn. What Is Motivation? What Are Some Theories of Motivation? Motivation and Behavioral Learning Theory Motivation and Human Needs Motivation and Attribution Theory Theory into Practice: Giving Students Motivating Feedback Motivation and Self-Regulated Learning Motivation and Expectancy Theory How Can Achievement Motivation Be Enhanced? Motivation and Goal Orientations Learned Helplessness and Attribution Training Theory into Practice: Helping Students Overcome Learned Helplessness Teacher Expectations and Achievement Teaching Dilemma: Expectations Anxiety and Achievement How Can Teachers Increase Students' Motivation to Learn? Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation How Can Teachers Enhance Intrinsic Motivation? Teaching Dilemma: Adapting Strategies Principles for Providing Extrinsic Incentives to Learn How Can Teachers Reward Performance, Effort, and Improvement? Using Praise Effectively Teaching Students to Praise Themselves Using Grades As Incentives Incentive Systems Based on Goal Structure The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Motivation to Improve Teaching and Learning 11. Effective Learning Environments. What Is an Effective Learning Environment? What Is the Impact of Time on Learning? Using Allocated Time for Instruction Using Engaged Time Effectively Personal Reflection: Maintaining Control Can Time On-Task Be Too High? Classroom Management in the Student-Centered Classroom What Practices Contribute to Effective Classroom Management? Starting Out the Year Right Setting Class Rules Teaching Dilemma: Rules of the Room What Are Some Strategies for Managing Routine Misbehavior? The Principle of Least Intervention Prevention Nonverbal Cues Praising Behavior That Is Incompatible with Misbehavior Praising Other Students Verbal Reminders Repeated Reminders Applying Consequences How Is Applied Behavior Analysis Used to Manage More Serious Behavior Problems? How Student Misbehavior Is Maintained Principles of Applied Behavior Analysis Applied Behavior Analysis Programs Theory into Practice: Using a Daily Report Card Theory into Practice: Establishing a Group Contingency Program Ethics of Behavioral Methods How Can Serious Behaviors Problems Be Prevented? Preventive Programs Identifying Causes of Misbehavior Enforcing Rules and Practices Enforcing School Attendance Check and Connect Avoiding Tracking Practicing Intervention Requesting Family Involvement Using Peer Mediation Judiciously Applying Consequences The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Effective Learning Environments to Improve Teaching and Learning 12. Learners with Exceptionalities. Who Are Learners with Exceptionalities? "People-First" Language Types of Exceptionalities and the Numbers of Student Served Students with Mental Retardation Theory into Practice: Teaching Adaptive Behavior Skills Student with Learning Disabilities Theory into Practice: Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Theory into Practice: Students with ADHD: The Role of the Teacher Students with Speech or Language Impairments Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders Students with Sensory, Physical, and Health Impairments Students Who Are Gifted and Talented What Is Special Education? Public Law 94-142 and IDEA An Array of Special Education Services Teaching Dilemma: Referring a Student Theory into Practice: Preparing IEPs What Are Mainstreaming and Inclusion? Research on Inclusion Personal Reflection: The Struggle Over Inclusion Adapting Instruction Theory into Practice: Adapting Instruction for Students with Special Needs Teaching Learning Strategies and Metacognitive Awareness Prevention and Early Intervention Computers and Students with Disabilities Buddy Systems and Peer Tutoring Special-Education Teams Teaching Dilemma: Finding What Works Social Integration of Students with Disabilities The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Learners with Exceptionalities to Improve Teaching and Learning 13. Assessing and Grading Student Learning. What Are Instructional Objectives and How Are They Used? Planning Lesson Objectives Theory into Practice: Planning Courses, Units, and Lessons Linking Objectives and Assessment Using Taxonomies of Instructional Objectives Research on Instructional Objectives Why Is Evaluation Important? Evaluation As Feedback Evaluation As Information Evaluation As Incentive How Is Student Learning Evaluated? Formative and Summative Evaluations Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Evaluations Matching Evaluation Strategies with Goals How Are Tests Constructed? Principles of Achievement Testing Theory Into Practice: Making Assessments Fair Using a Table of Specifications Writing Selected-Response Test Items Theory into Practice: Writing Multiple-Choice Tests Writing Constructed-Response Items Writing and Evaluating Essay Tests Theory Into Practice: Detecting Bluffing in Students' Essays Writing and Evaluating Problem-Solving Items Theory into Practice: Peer Evaluations What Are Portfolio and Performance Assessments? Portfolio Assessment Theory into Practice: Using Portfolios in the Classroom Performance Assessment How Well Do Performance Assessments Work? Scoring Rubrics for Performance Assessments How Are Grades Determined? Establishing Grading Criteria Assigning Letter Grades Teaching Dilemma: Establishing a Grading System Performance Grading Other Alternative Grading Systems Assigning Report Card Grades Personal Reflection: Assigning Grades The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Assessing and Grading Student Learning to Improve Teaching and Learning 14. Standardized Tests. What Are Standardized Tests and How Are They Used? Selection and Placement Diagnosis Evaluation School Improvement Accountability Theory into Practice: Teaching Test-Taking Skills Personal Reflection: Mixed Messages What Types of Standardized Tests Are Given? Aptitude Tests Norm-Referenced Achievement Tests Criterion-Referenced Achievement Tests Standard Setting How Are Standardized Tests Interpreted? Percentile Scores Grade-Equivalent Scores Standard Scores Theory into Practice: Interpreting Standardized Test Scores What Are Some Issues Concerning Standardized and Classroom Testing? Test Validity Test Reliability Test Bias Computer Test Administration Teaching Dilemma: Dealing with High-Stakes Testing The Intentional Teacher: Using What You Know About Standardized Tests to Improve Teaching and Learning