This volume deals with the theoretical, contrastive and lexicographical aspects of discourse particles, predominantly in German and English. The first section, "Scalar particles and focus making", contrasts a series of German particle lexemes with their contextually appropriate English counterparts. It attempts at a justification of different syntactic structures in questions, and of discourse and temporal aspectual particles. In the second section, "modal particles and illocutive semantics", a unified semantic description is presented, followed by a discussion as to how the category of discourse particles may have come into being in the first place. The concluding two sections deal with neurophysiological evidence for the modular character of scalar versus modal particles and with questions related to lexicographic description. The collection of papers maybe of interest to theoretical and contrastive linguists, language teachers and lexicographers.