Volume 2 of the series addresses structure / performance considerations, from computer modelling through to a consideration of how to modify specific surfactants by adjusting carbon chain length distribution, by studying the influence of chain branching, by introducing reactive groups or fluorinated hydrophobes, or by replacing conventional hydrophobes (or hydrophiles) with natural feedstock derivatives. The latter include carbohydrate derivatives, natural hydrocolloids and biosurfactants. A detailed study of catalytic and kinetic effects in ethoxylation processes shows how nonionic ethoxylate compositions can be altered, and this is further illustrated by a consideration of narrow chain length distribution fatty alcohol ethoxylates and their properties. Influence of chain branching in fatty alcohol ethoxylates is also demonstrated, using secondary alcohol ethoxylates as an example. Two end-use applications are included, to illustrate the performance / selection approach in identifying the most appropriate surfactants for a specific end use.