This graduate textbook presents a comprehensive, unified treatment of the materials science of deformation as applied to solid Earth geophysics and geology. The deformation of Earth materials is presented in a systematic way covering elastic, anelastic and viscous deformation. Advanced discussions on relevant debates are also included to bring readers a full picture of science in this interdisciplinary area. This textbook is ideal for graduate courses on the rheology and dynamics of solid Earth, and includes review questions with solutions so readers can monitor their understanding of the material presented. It is also a much-needed reference for geoscientists in many fields including geology, geophysics, geochemistry, materials science, mineralogy and ceramics.
Table of Contents
Part I. General Background: 1. Stress and strain; 2. Thermodynamics; 3. Phenomenological theory of deformation; Part II. Materials Science of Deformation: 4. Elasticity; 5. Crystalline defects; 6. Experimental techniques in the study of plastic deformation; 7. Brittle fracture, brittle-plastic transition; 8. Diffusional creep; 9. Dislocation creep; 10. Effects of pressure and water; 11. Physical mechanisms of seismic wave attenuation; 12. Deformation of multi-phase materials; 13. Grain size; 14. Lattice preferred orientation; 15. Effects of phase transformations; 16. Stability and localization of deformation; Part III. Geological and Geophysical Applications: 17. Composition and structure of Earth's interior; 18. Time-dependent deformation of Earth and rheological structures; 19. Inference of rheological structure of Earth from mineral physics; 20. Heterogeneity of seismic wave velocities and its geodynamic significance; 21. Seismic anisotropy and its geodynamic significance; References; Index.
SHUN-ICHIRO KARATO is a professor in the Department of Geology and Geophysics at Yale University. His research interests include mineral physics and chemistry, high-pressure/temperature experimental studies and their applications to geophysical and geological problems. Professor Karato is a fellow of the American Geophysical Union and a recipient of the Alexander von Humboldt Prize (1995), the Japan Academy Award (1999), and the Vening Meinesz medal from the Vening Meinesz School of Geodynamics in The Netherlands (2006). He is the author of more than 160 journal articles and has written/edited five other books.