Radiologists have an increasingly important role to play in the early detection, staging and treatment of malignant disease. A detailed knowledge of both benign and malignant tumours is necesseary for accurate image interpretation, in addition to the ability to evaluate the scope and limitations of the various imaging modalities available. This CD-ROM provides a comprehensive account of imaging in oncology and is intended as a reference for radiologists and oncologists in practice and in training. It covers: general principles; primary tumour staging; haematological malignancy; paediatrics; metastases; treatment evaluation; effects of treatment on normal tissue; and AIDS-related tumours. A feature of the book is the use of the TNM staging system - the standard system used by radiologists and oncologists for the accurate staging of tumours, nodules and metastases - and its basis on the protocols drawn up by the International Union Against Cancer. All images are complemented by colour line drawings to assist in the interpretation and the diagnosis of tumours, and tables, checklists, flow-charts, algorithms and end-of-chapter summaries highlight and reference key points.
Table of Contents
Section I: Normal and Abnormal Embryology of the Cloaca. Normal Embryology of the Cloaca, Abnormal Embryology - Cloacal Dysgenesis and Embryogenesis of Anorectal Malformations. Malformations of the External Cloaca. MIllerian and Wolffian Anomalies. Embryogenesis of the Hymen and Caudal end of the Vagina Deduced from Uterovaginal Anomalies. Section II: Intrinsic Anomalies of the Urethra? The Male Urethra. Embryogenesis of Hypospadias. Congenital Intrinsic Lesions of the Posterior Urethra. Congenital Intrinsic Lesions of the Anterior Urethra. Congenital Intrinsic Lesions of the Female Urethra. Section III: The Bladder. Morphology and Embryology of the Bladder. Anomalies of the Bladder. Section IV: The Ureter. Embryology and Morphology of the Ureter. Ureteral Bud Anomalies. Persisting Mesonephric Duct. Stenotic Ureterocele on Unduplicated Ureters. Megaureters. Vesicoureteral Reflux. The Reflux Ureter. Primary Obstructed Megaureter. Non-reflux, Non-obstructed Megaureter. Duplex Ureters. Bifid Ureters: an Anatomical Physiological and Clinical Study. Ureteroceles on Duplex Ureters -- Triplicate and Quadruplicate Ureters. Ureterovascular Hydronephrosis and the 'Aberrant' Renal Vessels. Section V: The Kidney. Normal Embryology of the Upper Urinary Tract and Kidney. Fused Kidneys: Morphologic Study and a Theory of Embryogenesis. Embryogenesis of Anterior and Lateral Renal Pelvis and Extraordinary Renal Fusion. Duplex Kidneys: a Correlation of Renal Dysplasia with Position of the Ureteral Orifice. The Ureteric Orifice: the Embryological Key to Radiological Status of Duplex Kidneys. Renal Ectopy. Renal Hypoplasia and Dysplasia in Infants with Posterior Urethral Valves. The Pathogenesis of Renal Dysplasia. Renal Dysgenesis: a 'Urologic' Classification. Section VI: Deformations as Opposed to Malformations -- A Mechanical Explanation of Multiple Anomalies. Section VII: Triad (Prune Belly) Syndrome, Intersex States and Undescended Testes -- Morphology and Embryogenesis of the Triad (Prune Belly) Syndrome. Abnormalities of Genital Development. Normal and Abnormal Testicular Descent. Section VIII: Recent Advances. Ontogeny of Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract (CAKUT). Embryogenesis of Deformations. Epispadias and Exstrophy of the Bladder. Appendix 1: "Forgetmenots". Appendix 2: Syndromes with a Renal Component.