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Antigenicity and Oseltamivir Resistance of Influenza a Virus



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Antigenicity and Oseltamivir Resistance of Influenza a Virus by Chi-Ko Ng
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This dissertation, "Antigenicity and Oseltamivir Resistance of Influenza A Virus" by Chi-ko, Ng, 伍智高, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Although several risk factors for severe influenza infection have been identified in previous studies, many patients having multiple risk factors only developed mild symptoms while many healthy young patients developed severe complications when infected with A(H1N1)pdm09. Thus, there are still undiscovered factors that affect the progression and severity of influenza. The early innate immune response may be critical in determining the disease progression. Non-neutralizing antibodies existed in the early stage of infection may contribute to the outcome of the disease. In this study, the association of disease severity with the titre and avidity of non-neutralizing antibodies in early stage of influenza infection was investigated. It has been shown that the titre of non-neutralizing antibody was higher in more severe patients in the early stage of infection. Higher antibody avidity was also found to be associated with more severe disease independently. These findings tend to support the view that antigenic drift leads to an excessive production of pro-inflammatory non-neutralizing antibodies in the patients and associated with severe outcome. Since patients with more severe disease tend to have a delayed clearance of the virus and allow more transmission, the antigenically shifted or drifted influenza virus may gradually become predominant in human population. This idea suggested that the predominance of influenza virus with NA-H275Y mutation in 2007-2008 was contributed by the co-existing, fitness restoring secondary adaptive mutation in HA. NA-H275Y was identified in previous studies to be the mutation encoding for the influenza virus to resist against oseltamivir but would also change the property of NA as a result of compromised viral fitness. Therefore, influenza virus carrying NA-H275Y is unlikely to emerge and spread in human population. However, NA-H275Y mutated strains of influenza virus emerged and spread globally in the influenza season of 2007-2008 and quickly become the predominant strain in 2008. Previous study found NA-R222Q and NA-V234M were the mutations responsible for restoring the viral fitness in oseltamivir resistant clinical isolates. Still, this cannot fully explain the predominance of the resistant strains over the susceptible strains. Therefore secondary adaptive mutation in HA was believed to be present and cause antigenic change to the resistant strains of influenza. In this study, mutual information analysis and HA structural analysis were conducted to screen out HA-A189T and HA-Y94H to be the candidates co-exist with NA-H275Y and possibly critical for antigenic changes. This study further suggested that HA-Y94H mutation leads to a change of antigenic property of the virus by examining the antigenicity and growth kinetics of the recombinant viruses carrying the selected HA mutations. HA-94 may be critical for determining both the receptor binding property and antigenic property of the virus. Review on the evolution of seasonal influenza viruses from 2005 to 2008 suggested that the emergence of HA-Y94H mutation may enhance the presence of NA-H275Y and helps the viruses carrying NA-H275Y to spread and dominate over the oseltamivir susceptible strains during 2007 and 2008. DOI: 10.5353/th_b5043453 Subjects: Influenza A virusAntigensDrug resistance
Release date NZ
January 26th, 2017
Created by
Country of Publication
United States
colour illustrations
Open Dissertation Press
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