An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt is a comprehensive overview of Egyptian archaeology skillfully organized to guide the reader from Egypt's prehistoric past through the pharaonic dynasties and the Greco-Roman Period. * Provides an unprecedented introduction to the archaeology of ancient Egypt and its culture, monuments, and civilization * Beautifully illustrated with over 120 color and black and white illustrations, including artifacts, maps, and site and building plans * Includes special sections on such topics of perennial interest as building the pyramids at Giza, mummification, and deciphering hieroglyphs * Organized into 11 chapters, covering: the history of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology; prehistoric and pharaonic chronology and the ancient Egyptian language; geography, resources, and environment; and seven chapters organized chronologically and devoted to specific archaeological sites and evidence * Includes discussion of new excavations in Egypt, connecting recent work with the results of projects spanning the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries
Table of Contents
List of Plates. List of Figures. List of Maps. Abbreviations of References Listed in Suggested Readings. Preface. Acknowledgements. 1. Egyptian Archaeology: Definitions and History . 1.1: Introduction: ancient Egyptian civilization and its prehistoric predecessors. 1.2: Egyptian archaeology. 1.3: Egyptology. 1.4: History of Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology. 1.5: Archaeological methods. 1.6: Archaeological theory. 1.7: Ancient Egypt and Egyptian archaeologists in fiction and films. 2. Hieroglyphs, Language and Pharaonic Chronology: . 2.1: Language of the ancient Egyptians. 2.2: Origins and development of Egyptian writing. 2.3: Scripts and media of writing. 2.4: Signs, structure, and grammar. 2.5: Literacy in ancient Egypt. 2.6: Textual studies. 2.7: Use of texts in Egyptian archaeology. 2.8: Historical outline of pharaonic Egypt. 2.9: The Egyptian civil calendar, king lists, and calculation of pharaonic chronology. 3. The Environmental Background to Pharaonic Civilization: Geography, Environment, Agriculture, and Natural Resources: . 3.1: Geography: terms and place names. 3.2: Environmental setting. 3.3: Environmental and other problems for archaeology in Egypt. 3.4: The seasons and agricultural system. 3.5: The ancient Egyptian diet. 3.6: Other useful plants and animals. 3.7: Building materials. 3.8: Other resources: clays, stones, minerals. 3.9: Imported materials. 4. Egyptian Prehistory: Paleolithic and Neolithic:. Paleolithic . 4.1: Paleolithic cultures in Egypt. 4.2: Lower Paleolithic. 4.3: Middle Paleolithic. 4.4: Upper Paleolithic. 4.5: Late Paleolithic. 4.6: Epipaleolithic. Neolithic. 4.7: Saharan Neolithic. 4.8: Neolithic in the Nile Valley: Faiyum A and Lower Egypt. 4.9: Neolithic in the Nile Valley: Middle and Upper Egypt. 5. The Rise of Complex Society and Early Civilization:. Predynastic Egypt . 5.1: The Predynastic Period: Egypt in the 4th millennium BC. 5.2: Lower Egypt: Buto-Ma'adi culture. 5.3: Upper Egypt: Naqada culture. 5.4: Lower Nubia: A-Group culture. 5.5: State formation and unification. The Early Dynastic State. 5.6: Organization and institutions of the Early Dynastic state. 5.7: Early writing and formal art. 5.8: The expanding state. 5.9: Who were the ancient Egyptians?. 6. The Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period:. 6.1: The Old Kingdom: overview. The Early Old Kingdom. 6.2: The 3rd Dynasty: Djoser's Step Pyramid at Saqqara. 6.3: The 4th Dynasty's first king, Sneferu, and his three pyramids. 6.4: Khufu's Great Pyramid at Giza. 6.5: The Great Sphinx and Khafra's pyramid complex. 6.6: Menkaura's Giza pyramid and its remarkable valley temple finds. 6.7: Giza pyramid towns. 6.8: Giza mastabas, Queen Hetepheres's hidden tomb, and the workmen's cemetery. The Later Old Kingdom. 6.9: Sun temples of the 5th Dynasty. 6.10: Later Old Kingdom pyramids and the Pyramid Texts. 6.11: An expanding bureaucracy: private tombs in the 5th and 6th Dynasties. 6.12: Egypt abroad. The First Intermediate Period. 6.13: The end of the Old Kingdom and the First Intermediate Period: causes of state collapse. 7. The Middle Kingdom and Second Intermediate Period:. The Middle Kingdom . 7.1: The Middle Kingdom: overview. 7.2: Pre-unification 11th Dynasty: saff tombs at Thebes. 7.3: Mentuhotep II's complex at Deir el-Bahri. 7.4: Model workers and the Deir el-Bahri tomb of Meketra. 7.5: 12th-Dynasty temples. 7.6: 12th- and 13th-Dynasty pyramids. 7.7: Towns and domestic architecture: Kahun and South Abydos. 7.8: Nomarchs in Middle Egypt: the Beni Hasan tombs. 7.9: Mining in the Sinai and a galena mine in the Eastern Desert. 7.10: Egyptian forts in Nubia and indigenous peoples there. The Second Intermediate Period. 7.11: Second Intermediate Period: the Hyksos kingdom in the north. 7.12: The Kerma kingdom in Upper Nubia. 7.13: The Theban state during the Second Intermediate Period. 8. The New Kingdom: . 8.1: The New Kingdom: overview. The Early New Kingdom. 8.2: Early New Kingdom architecture: Ahmose's Abydos pyramid complex, and the Theban mortuary temples of Hatshepsut and Thutmose III. 8.3: Amenhotep III's Malkata palace. 8.4: Tell el-Amarna and the Amarna Period. 8.5: The Amarna aftermath and Tutankhamen's tomb. New Kingdom Temples. 8.6: Restoration of the traditional gods: Sety I's Abydos temple. 8.7: The temples of Karnak and Luxor in the New Kingdom. 8.8: Ramessid mortuary temples. Royal and Elite Tombs. 8.9: Royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings and Valley of the Queens. 8.10: Elite tombs at Thebes and Saqqara. State Towns and Settlements. 8.11: The workmen's village and tombs at Deir el-Medina. 8.12: Nubian temple towns. 9. The Third Intermediate Period and Late Period:. 9.1: The Third Intermediate Period: overview. 9.2: The Late Period: overview. 9.3: Tanis: a new city with royal tombs. 9.4: Napata/Gebel Barkal and Sanam. 9.5: el-Kurru and Nuri: the Kushite royal tombs. 9.6: Saqqara: the Serapeum and animal cults. 9.7: Some high status tombs of the Third Intermediate Period and Late Period. 9.8: Tell el-Maskhuta and Tell el-Herr. 10. The Greco-Roman Period: . Greco-Roman Egypt. 10.1: The Ptolemaic Period: overview. 10.2: The Roman Period: overview. 10.3: Alexandria. 10.4: Greco-Roman settlements in the Faiyum. 10.5: Two Greco-Roman temple complexes in Upper Egypt: Dendera and Philae. Sites outside the Nile Valley. 10.6: The Western Desert: Bahariya and Dakhla Oases. 10.7: The Eastern Desert: Roman ports, forts, roads, and quarrying sites. Nubia. 10.8: Qasr Ibrim. 10.9: Meroe: the Kushite capital and royal cemeteries. 11. The Study of Ancient Egypt . Glossary of Terms. Suggested Readings. Appendix: Additional Readings in French, German, and Italian. Chapter Summaries and Discussion Questions. Index
Kathryn A. Bard is Associate Professor of Archaeology, Boston University, and is the editor of The Encyclopedia of the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt (1999). She has directed excavations in Egypt and northern Ethiopia since 1989 and was the recipient of the National Geographic Society's Committee for Research and Exploration Chairman's Award in 1998. Bard is Co-Director (with Rodolfo Fattovich) of excavations at the pharaonic seaport at Wadi/Mersa Gawasis, where in December 2004 they discovered the first pieces ever recovered from ancient Egyptian seagoing vessels, including riggings and cedar steering oars.