Gait analysis is the systematic study of human walking. It is used for diagnosis and the planning of treatment in people with medical conditions that affect the way they walk. Over the last few years, increasing numbers of patients have benefited from the use of gait analysis by their doctors and physical therapists. Most of the literature in this field is highly specialized and very technical. This book, however, aims to brings gait analysis out of the 'ivory tower' of the research laboratory, and to put it where it belongs, in the 'real world' of the clinic. The author has maintained the clear and approachable style that established the first three editions of "Gait Analysis: an Introduction" as the premier introductory textbook on the subject. The book aims to demystify the subject of gait analysis, and it will continue to be essential reading for students and practitioners of physical therapy, orthopaedics, neurology, rheumatology, rehabilitation, bioengineering, and indeed all those involved in the study of human movement. Dr. Michael Whittle holds the Walter M.
Cline Chair of Excellence in Rehabilitation Technology in the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, and has honorary appointments as Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and Professor of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation in the University of Tennessee College of Medicine. He is a qualified doctor, and has degrees in physiology and biomedical engineering. He has spent over 25 years running gait analysis laboratories in the University of Oxford, England, and the University of Tennessee. He previously worked as principle coordinating scientist for the musculoskeletal experiments on NASA's Skylab space station.
Table of Contents
Basic sciences Anatomy Physiology Biomechanics References and suggestions for further reading Normal gait Walking and gait History Terminology used in gait analysis Outline of the gait cycle The gait cycle in detail Ground reaction forces Support moment Energy consumption Optimization of energy usage Starting and stopping Other varieties of gait Gait in the young Gait in the elderly References and suggestions for further reading Pathological and other abnormal gaits Specific gait abnormalities Walking aids Amputee gait Treadmill gait Common pathologies affecting gait References and suggestions for further reading Methods of gait analysis Visual gait analysis General gait parameters Timing the gait cycle Direct motion measurement systems Electrogoniometers Pressure beneath the foot Electromyography Energy consumption Accelerometers Gyroscopes Force platforms Kinematic systems Combined kinetic/kinematic systems References and suggestions for further reading Applications of gait analysis Clinical gait assessment Conditions benefiting from gait assessment Future developments ConclusionReferences and suggestions for further reading Gait assessment in cerebral palsy Basic physiology of movement The causes of cerebral palsy Spastic hemiplegia Spastic diplegia Other varieties of cerebral palsy Crouch gait Spasticity Lever arm dysfunction Gait patterns in cerebral palsy Gait assessment Overview of treatment Summary References and suggestions for further reading Gait analysis data on CD-ROM Computer requirements Running the CD Contents of the CD How to use the Polygon viewer Notes Acknowledgements Appendices 1. Normal ranges for gait parameters 2. Conversions between measurement units 3. Sources of further information Glossary Index