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A Systematic Review of Post Extractional Alveolar Hard and Soft Tissue Dimensional Changes

Comparison of Animal and Human Studies



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A Systematic Review of Post Extractional Alveolar Hard and Soft Tissue Dimensional Changes by Wah Lay Tan
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This dissertation, "A Systematic Review of Post Extractional Alveolar Hard and Soft Tissue Dimensional Changes: Comparison of Animal and Human Studies" by Wah Lay, Tan, 陳華麗, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Background: Removal of teeth results in both horizontal and vertical changes of hard and soft tissue dimensions. The magnitude of these changes is important for decision-making and comprehensive treatment planning, with provisions for possible solutions to expected complications during prosthetic rehabilitation. Objectives: to review all English dental literature to assess the magnitude of dimensional changes of both the hard and soft tissues of the alveolar ridge up to 12 months following tooth extraction in humans. Materials and methods: An electronic MEDLINE and CENTRAL search complemented by manual searching was conducted to identify randomized controlled clinical trials and prospective cohort studies on hard and soft tissue dimensional changes after tooth extraction. Only studies reporting on undisturbed post-extraction dimensional changes relative to a fixed reference point over a clearly stated time period were included. Assessment of the identified studies and data extraction was performed independently by two reviewers. Data collected were reported by descriptive methods. Weighted means and percentages of the dimensional changes over time were calculated where appropriate. Results: The search provided 3954 titles and 238 abstracts. Full text analysis was performed for 104 articles resulting in 20 studies that met the inclusion criteria. In human hard tissue, horizontal dimensional reduction (3.79 0.23 mm) was more than vertical reduction (1.24 0.11 mm on buccal, 0.84 0.62 mm on mesial and 0.80 0.71 mm on distal sites) at 6 months. Percentage vertical dimensional change was 11-22 % at 6 months. Percentage horizontal dimensional change was 32% at 3 months, and 29-63% at 6-7 months. Soft tissue changes demonstrated 0.4-0.5 mm gain of thickness at 6 months on the buccal and lingual aspects. Horizontal dimensional changes of hard and soft tissue (loss of 0.1 mm to 6.1 mm) was more substantial than vertical change (loss 0.9 mm to gain 0.4mm) during observation periods of up to 12 months, when study casts were utilised as a means of documenting the changes. Conclusions: Human re-entry studies showed horizontal bone loss of 29-63% and vertical bone loss of 11-22% after 6 months following tooth extraction. These studies demonstrated rapid reductions in the first 3-6 months that was followed by gradual reductions in dimensions thereafter. DOI: 10.5353/th_b4839529 Subjects: Alveolar processTeeth - Extraction
Release date NZ
January 26th, 2017
Created by
colour illustrations
Country of Publication
United States
Open Dissertation Press
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