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A Novel DNA Vaccine for Tuberculosis Prevention

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A Novel DNA Vaccine for Tuberculosis Prevention by Jiansong Tang
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This dissertation, "A Novel DNA Vaccine for Tuberculosis Prevention" by Jiansong, Tang, 湯健松, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: According to the Global Tuberculosis Report 2014, one third of the world population was latently infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). The situation of tuberculosis (TB) prevalence is worsened by the global pandemic of HIV/AIDS, the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR) and extensively-drug resistant (XDR) strains. In 2013, the TB epidemic continued to grow with 9 million new infections and 1.5 million deaths. Since most of the death could have been prevented, the current treatment of TB is far from satisfactory. Therefore, an effective vaccine for the eradication of TB infection or for the elimination of tuberculosis onset and latent reactivation remains to be a research priority. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been the only clinically approved TB vaccine since almost a century ago. However, it failed to protect adult tuberculosis or even caused disseminated BCG diseases in HIV-positive population. Live attenuated and recombinant subunit vaccines for the improvement or replacement of BCG have been designed, aiming to provide better-than-BCG protection in tested animals. A dozen of novel vaccines, including VPM1002, AERAS-456 and Aeras-402, have been tested in different phases of clinical trials. Unfortunately, there is still no vaccine with the capacity of TB infection eradication or latent reactivation prevention now or in the near future. DNA vaccines are new generation vaccines that have yet approved for human use, although four have been licensed for veterinary application. In this study, we have investigated four DNA vaccines that express TB antigens Ag85B (Antigen 85B), ESAT-6 (the 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target), Rv2660c (a latency-associated gene) and codon optimized fusion form 〖BER〗 DEGREES(opt ) in BALB/c mice via intramuscular electroporation (EP). Compared to BCG and other antigens, 〖BER〗 DEGREES(opt ) vaccine induced high frequency of Ag85B-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses. Moreover, 〖BER〗 DEGREES(opt ) conferred significantly better protection against M. tb H37Rv challenge when compared to other DNA or virus vectored vaccines, with lower CFU count in the lungs and improved lung pathology comparable to that provided by BCG. In conclusion, 〖BER〗 DEGREES(opt )does not have major issues of safety and pre-existing anti-vector immunity (e.g. vaccinia vector). Our findings warrant further investigation of 〖BER〗 DEGREES(opt ) for TB prevention and immunotherapy, as well as the alleviation of global HIV/AIDS burden. Subjects: DNA vaccinesTuberculosis - Vaccination
Release date NZ
January 26th, 2017
Author
Contributor
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Country of Publication
United States
Illustrations
colour illustrations
Imprint
Open Dissertation Press
Dimensions
216x279x14
ISBN-13
9781361036433
Product ID
26645850

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